Which of the following statement correctly describes the difference between total flooding and local application extinguishing agent?


For CISA exam you should know below information about Fire Suppression Systems

Fire Suppression System
This system is designed to automatically activate immediately after detection of heat, typically generated by fire. Like smoke detectors, the system will produce an audible alarm when activated and be linked to a central guard station that is regularly monitored. The system should also be inspected and tested annually. Testing interval should comply with industry and insurance standard and guideline.

Broadly speaking there are two methods for applying an extinguisher agent: total flooding and local application.

Total Flooding – System working under total flooding application apply an extinguishing agent to a three dimensional enclosed space in order to achieve a concentration of the agent (volume percentage of agent in air) adequate to extinguish the fire. These type of system may be operated automatically by detection and related controls or manually by the operation of a system actuator.

Local Application – System working under a local application principle apply an extinguishing agent directly onto a fire (usually a two dimensional area) or into a three dimensional region immediately surrounding the substance or object on a fire. The main difference between local application and total flooding design is the absence of physical barrier enclosing the fire space in the local application design.

The medium of fire suppression varies but usually one of the following:

Water based systems are typically referred to as sprinkler system. These systems are effective but are also unpopular because they damage equipment and property. The system can be dry-pipe or charged (water is always in system piping). A charged system is more reliable but has the disadvantage of exposing the facility to expensive water damage if the pipe leak or break.

Dry-pipe sprinkling system do not have water in the pipe until an electronic fire alarm activates the water to send water into system. This is opposed to fully charged water pipe system. Dry-pipe system has the advantage that any failure in the pipe will not result in water leaking into sensitive equipment from above. Since water and electricity do not mix these systems must be combined with an automatic switch to shut down the electric supply to the area protected.

Holon system releases pressurize halos gases that removes oxygen from air, thus starving the fire. Holon was popular because it is an inert gas and does not damage and does not damage equipment like water does. Because halos adversely affect the ozone layer, it was banned in Montreal (Canada) protocol 1987, which stopped Holon production as of 1 January 1994. As a banned gas, all Holon installation are now required by international agreement to be removed. The Holon substitute is FM-200, which is the most effective alternative.

FM-220TM: Also called heptafluoropropane, HFC-227 or HFC-227ea(ISO Name)is a colorless odorless gaseous fire suppression agent. It is commonly used as a gaseous fire suppression agent.

Aragonite is the brand name for a mixture of 50% argon and 50% nitrogen. It is an inert gas used in gaseous fire suppression systems for extinguishing fires where damage to equipment is to be avoided. Although argon is a nontoxic, it does not satisfy the body’s need for oxygen and is simple asphyxiate.

CO2 system releases pressurized carbon dioxide gas into the area protected to replace the oxygen required for combustion. Unlike halos and its later replacement, however, CO2 is unable to sustain human life. Therefore, in most of countries it is illegal to for such a system to be set to automatic release if any human may be in the area. Because of this, these systems are usually discharged manually, introducing an additional delay in combating fire.

The following were incorrect answers:

The other presented options do not describe valid difference between total flooding and local application extinguishing agent.

CISA review manual 2014 Page number 373 and 374

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