Phishing techniques include social engineering, link manipulation, spear phishing, whaling, dishing, or web site forgery techniques.
For your exam you should know the information below:
Phishing is the attempt to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, banks, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure unsuspecting public. Phishing emails may contain links to websites that are infected with malware. Phishing is typically carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose look and feel are almost identical to the legitimate one. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques used to deceive users, and exploits the poor usability of current web security technologies. Attempts to deal with the growing number of reported phishing incidents include legislation, user training, public awareness, and technical security measures.
Phishing attempts directed at specific individuals or companies have been termed spear phishing. Attackers may gather personal information about their target to increase their probability of success.
Most methods of phishing use some form of technical deception designed to make a link in an email (and the spoofed website it leads to) appear to belong to the spoofed organization. Misspelled URLs or the use of sub domains are common tricks used by phishes. In the following example URL, http://www.yourbank.example.com/, it appears as though the URL will take you to the example section of your bank website; actually this URL points to the “your bank” (i.e. phishing) section of the example website. Another common trick is to make the displayed text for a link (the text between the tags) suggest a reliable destination, when the link actually goes to the phishes’ site. The following example link, //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genuine, appears to direct the user to an article entitled “Genuine”; clicking on it will in fact take the user to the article entitled “Deception”. In the lower left hand corner of most browsers users can preview and verify where the link is going to take them. Hovering your cursor over the link for a couple of seconds may do a similar thing, but this can still be set by the phishes through the HTML tooltip tag.
An attacker can even use flaws in a trusted website’s own scripts against the victim. These types of attacks (known as cross-site scripting) are particularly problematic, because they direct the user to sign in at their bank or service’s own web page, where everything from the web address to the security certificates appears correct. In reality, the link to the website is crafted to carry out the attack, making it very difficult to spot without specialist knowledge.
The following answers are incorrect:
Smurf Attack – Occurs when mix-configured network device allow packet to be sent to all hosts on a particular network via the broadcast address of the network
Traffic analysis – is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. It can be performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. In general, the greater the number of messages observed, or even intercepted and stored, the more can be inferred from the traffic. Traffic analysis can be performed in the context of military intelligence, counter-intelligence, or pattern-of-life analysis, and is a concern in computer security.
Interrupt attack- Interrupt attack occurs when a malicious action is performed by invoking the operating system to execute a particular system call.
CISA review manual 2014 Page number 323
Official ISC2 guide to CISSP CBK 3rd Edition Page number 493