Which of the following attack best describe “Computer is the target of a crime” and “Computer is the tool of a crime”?


In computing, a denial-of-service (DoS) or distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. Although the means to carry out, motives for, and targets of a DoS attack may vary, it generally consists of efforts to temporarily or indefinitely interrupt or suspend services of a host connected to the Internet. As clarification, DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks are sent by two or more persons, or bots. (See botnet) DoS (Denial of Service) attacks are sent by one person or system.
Keystroke logging, often referred to as key logging or keyboard capturing, is the action of recording (or logging) the keys struck on a keyboard, typically in a covert manner so that the person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored. It also has very legitimate uses in studies of human-computer interaction. There are numerous key logging methods, ranging from hardware and software-based approaches to acoustic analysis.

There are four types of a computer crimes:

1. Computer is the target of a crime – Perpetrator uses another computer to launch an attack. In this attack the target is a specific identified computer. Ex. Denial of Service (DoS), hacking

2. Computer is the Subject of a crime – In this attack perpetrator uses computer to commit crime and the target is another computer. In this attack, target may or may not be defined. Perpetrator launches attack with no specific target in mind. Ex. Distributed DoS, Malware

3. Computer is the tool of a crime – Perpetrator uses computer to commit crime but the target is not a computer. Target is the data or information stored on a computer. Ex. Fraud, unauthorized access, phishing, installing key logger

4. Computer Symbolizes Crime – Perpetrator lures the user of a computer to get confidential information. Target is user of computer. Ex. Social engineering methods like Phishing, Fake website, Scam Mails, etc

The following answers are incorrect:

Eavesdropping – is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their consent, as defined by Black’s Law Dictionary. This is commonly thought to be unethical and there is an old adage that “eavesdroppers seldom hear anything good of themselves…eavesdroppers always try to listen to matters that concern them.”

Traffic analysis – is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. It can be performed even when the messages are encrypted and cannot be decrypted. In general, the greater the number of messages observed, or even intercepted and stored, the more can be inferred from the traffic. Traffic analysis can be performed in the context of military intelligence, counter-intelligence, or pattern-of-life analysis, and is a concern in computer security.

Masquerading – A masquerade attack is an attack that uses a fake identity, such as a network identity, to gain unauthorized access to personal computer information through legitimate access identification. If an authorization process is not fully protected, it can become extremely vulnerable to a masquerade attack. Masquerade attacks can be perpetrated using stolen passwords and logons, by locating gaps in programs, or by finding a way around the authentication process. The attack can be triggered either by someone within the organization or by an outsider if the organization is connected to a public network. The amount of access masquerade attackers get depends on the level of authorization they’ve managed to attain. As such, masquerade attackers can have a full smorgasbord of cybercrime opportunities if they’ve gained the highest access authority to a business organization. Personal attacks, although less common, can also be harmful.


CISA review Manual 2014. Page number 321


Leave a Reply